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31 May 2017

« What do cochlear implants really do ? »

For nearly 40 years, deaf patients can benefit from a cochlear implantation in order to restore their oral communication skills. These cochlear implants are electronic hearing aids consisting mainly of a bundle of electrodes placed in the inner ear which will restore the external sound signal to the auditory nerve in the form of electrical pulses. Work on the improvement of sound coding strategies is at the heart of research in the field in order to provide patients with the most accurate and suitable electrical signal possible. In the case of deep bilateral deafness, the literature attests to an optimal recovery of speech understanding performance in quiet environments and a significant improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, the quality of the sound transmitted and its perception by the patient via the implant remains largely unknown. What do these "deaf-hearing" people hear through this neuroprosthesis? Acoustic simulations were developed by O.Macherey (Laboratory of Mechanics and Acoustics, CNRS, Marseille) and t Chadlia Karoui (PhD Student, CerCo, Cifre contract, Cochlear) as part of a study on the rehabilitation of unilateral deafness by cochlear implantation under the direction of Pr. Mathieu Marx (équipe C3P et CHU Purpan). The results being validated in unilateral deaf patients with cochlear implants in the ORL-CHU service of Toulouse-Purpan have defined the simulations which are closed to the sound transmitted via the implant than the usual simulations. These results represent another step in the understanding of the world of deaf patients with cochlear implants who, thanks to the neuroprosthesis, find oral communication and the accompanying social life.

A documentary on FranceCulture presents testimonies of young patients implanted as well as sounds synthesized from these new acoustic simulations.

[https://www.franceculture.fr/emissi...>

12 May 2017

Nouvelle traduction : When memories come back through electrical brain stimulation……

«When memories come back through electrical brain stimulation…» … they become an amazing tool of long term memory. Electrical brain stimulations (EBS) sometimes induce reminiscences, but it is largely unknown what type of memories they can trigger. We reviewed 80 years of literature on reminiscences induced by EBS and added our own database. We classified them according to modern conceptions of memory. We observed a surprisingly large variety of reminiscences covering all aspects of declarative memory. However, most were poorly detailed and only a few were episodic. This result does not support theories of a highly stable and detailed memory, as initially postulated, and still widely believed as true by the general public. Moreover, memory networks could only be activated by some of their nodes: 94.1% of EBS were temporal, although the parietal and frontal lobes, also involved in memory networks, were stimulated. The qualitative nature of memories largely depended on the site of stimulation: EBS to rhinal cortex mostly induced personal semantic reminiscences, while only hippocampal EBS induced episodic memories. This result supports the view that EBS can activate memory in predictable ways in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews; 2017

23 January 2017

What are the brain regions that process visual information when we walk within our environment?

What are the brain regions that process visual information when we walk within our environment? Are they identical in human and non-human primates, species that are very close by on the evolutionary tree? In order to answer these questions, researchers from the ECO-3D team used a neuroimaging technique based on fMRI recordings at high field (3T) in awake behaving macaque. This state-of-art approach was developed in parallel in human and monkey over the last 5 years within the MRI platform of the ‘Institut des Sciences du Cerveau de Toulouse’ on the site of the Purpan hospital. This platform is one of the first in France that was specifically designed for studies in both human and macaque. Numerous tests were necessary for the establishment of fMRI sequences, the development of specific coils but also for the processing of the data and the conditioning of the animals. The results, published in Cerebral Cortex, revealed that despite some differences, the cortical networks activated during locomotion in macaques are very close to those obtained in humans using the same experimental approach. They allow a better understanding of the homologies between the two species and open new perspectives on our current knowledge of brain function evolution in primate.

19 July 2016

Cécile JUAN : Prix du Poster au Forum international de la recherche en multi sensorialité

Cécile JUAN, is honored by the prize of the outstanding Award Certificate of the organizing comitte of the 17th international multisensory research forum for her work on Auditory-visual integration in the posterior cingulate cortex of the macaque monkeys. Son poster a été présenté au 17ème Forum international sur la recherche en multisensorialité (IMRF) qui s’est déroulé à Suzhou en chine du 15 au 18 juin 2016. This study shows first neuronal evidence of the visuo-auditory integration in the PCC of awake monkeys. These stimuli could be treated later as spatial markers to avoid or direct to when the animal explores its environment.

9 March 2016

Médaille d’honneur du CNRS

On Tuesday, March 8th, 2016, Michèle FABRE-THORPE and Catherine MARLOT saw awarding the medal of honor of the CNRS(NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH) for the quality of services provided.

Médaille_Michèle Médaille_Catherine

The CNRS(NATIONAL CENTER FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH) wishes to honor all those who contributed to its brilliance, either directly by their scientific activity, or more indirectly, by allowing by their daily activity that the research can be made in the best possible conditions. A medal of honor of the CNRS was created to honor, at the time of their retirement, the staffs researchers, engineers, technicians and administration staff for their participation in the research activity during numerous years.


To be noted

Semaine du Cerveau 2017

La semaine du Cerveau 2017 se déroulera du 13 au 18 mars. Programme

InCOGnu

L’association InCOGnu organise régulièrement des soirées débats et ateliers autour des Sciences Cognitives. More...